The Longest-Running Evolution Experiment

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Veritasium

Prije mjesec

If you ran evolution all over again, would you get humans? How repeatable is ? This video is sponsored by @BountyBrand.

Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lenski and team for showing me around the lab - it is an honor to be able to witness and document such a historic science experiment.
Thanks to Dr Zachary Blount for the help with research and setting up the competition time-lapse, Dr Nkrumah Grant for microscope images of the long-term line cells @NkrumahGrant
Devin Lake, Kate Bellgowan, and Dr. Minako Izutsu for being part of this video. Long Live the LTEE!

LTEE website - myxo.css.msu.edu/ecoli/index.html
Intro footage courtesy of the Kishony Lab - kishony.technion.ac.il
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References:
Lenski, R. E., \u0026 Travisano, M. (1994). Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(15), 6808-6814. - ve42.co/Lenski1994

Lenski, R. E., Rose, M. R., Simpson, S. C., \u0026 Tadler, S. C. (1991). Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. The American Naturalist, 138(6), 1315-1341. - ve42.co/Lenski1991

Good, B. H., McDonald, M. J., Barrick, J. E., Lenski, R. E., \u0026 Desai, M. M. (2017). The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations. Nature, 551(7678), 45-50. - ve42.co/Good2017

Blount, Z. D., Borland, C. Z., \u0026 Lenski, R. E. (2008). Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899-7906. - ve42.co/Blount2008

Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., \u0026 Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415). - ve42.co/Blount2018

Wiser, M. J., Ribeck, N., \u0026 Lenski, R. E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science, 342(6164), 1364-1367. - ve42.co/Wiser2013

N, Scharping. (2019). How a 30-Year Experiment Has Fundamentally Changed Our View of How Evolution Works. Discover - ve42.co/Scharping

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Research and Writing by by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Casey Rentz
Animation by Iván Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno
Edited by Derek Muller
Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Thumbnail image courtesy of the Kishony Lab
Produced by Casey Rentz
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Komentari
Tyray3P
Tyray3P Prije 3 sati
It's all well and good until the germs can transfer through xenonite
Cedric Velarde
Cedric Velarde Prije 3 sati
1st gen e coli: we cant eat that its deadly! 1000000+ gen e coli: u wut m8?!
A Real Life Dog
A Real Life Dog Prije 14 sati
Crematoriums are for organisms that are already dead... Those furnaces look more like something found at Dachau
МАТЬ-РОССИЯ
МАТЬ-РОССИЯ Prije 15 sati
*how to create a supervirus*
gyamlj
gyamlj Prije 16 sati
This is a highly controlled environment. Compare the competitive advantage of the newest and oldest colonies in a natural world where innumerable other factors weigh in to survival. It may very well be that the older organisms are better able to survive. This is analogous to selective breeding that creates an animal with desired characteristics but is otherwise less capable of overall survival compared to its ancestors. I'm afraid this teaches me nothing.
Ashethorama
Ashethorama Prije 23 sati
Did anyone else notice the reference from the movie “The 13th Warrior” on the fridge? Timestamp 7:50 minute
Seven Ligthson
Seven Ligthson Prije dan
YES! Nothing out is not in and everything out is in ;-)) 1.5 (oo.000) is human program given by life = love = what you are in need of, who (do you) are (you)? I took my ABO once more!
Christopher Inman
Christopher Inman Prije dan
Queen Elizabeth I (of England) cooked a fruitcake for members of parliament to celebrate its opening. A bit was saved to be included in the next parliament's opening, etc. So now, when parliament begins its new season, the members are privileged to have a bit of cake cooked by Shakespeare's favorite monarch! [i have not fact-checked this because i don't want to find out if it is not true]
maruftim
maruftim Prije dan
Mad scientist fell into bacteria gacha hell...
AJ T
AJ T Prije dan
Is he referring to Confirmation Bias or is it something else?
ZedCactus
ZedCactus Prije dan
This episode was great! Really interesting.
Lief Bamberg
Lief Bamberg Prije dan
disappoinited that derek is now hawking that idea that greater bacterial spread is somehow dirtier, and that you should use disposible environment wrecking paper over washable cloths.
WowZers
WowZers Prije dan
Imagine being the chad bacteria to first eat the citrate
Rodrigo Segura
Rodrigo Segura Prije dan
42, ¿coincidence? I think not
Frenchnostalgique
Frenchnostalgique Prije 2 dana
Prof Richard Lenski has the same accent as Rich Evans and it's throwing me off.
Azurium
Azurium Prije 2 dana
Me seeing 1% selection first hand: "So that's what the aliens are doing to our universe and what the Great Filter could be."
Azurium
Azurium Prije 2 dana
Context: imagine that at 7:30 he's talking about intergalactic species expanding across the universe.
Christian412 America
Christian412 America Prije 2 dana
The educated dumbasses still call it evolution. After 70000+ generations the bacteria is still producing bacteria. The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria. Why is it so hard to get un biased conclusions? The only thing that has been observed is ADAPTATION not evolution.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije dan
"The educated dumbasses still call it evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria" If they produced something other than bacteria, it would disprove evolution. You understand that, right?
SuperSonic Boom
SuperSonic Boom Prije 2 dana
Nah, if the flask breaks we become the solution to the experiment.
Michael Kurek
Michael Kurek Prije 2 dana
It’s called mutation or adaptation. NOT EVOLUTION! The bacteria will always remain bacteria, just more resistant.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije dan
Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.
Guy Fox
Guy Fox Prije 2 dana
IT'S GOD! LOL
Samaila Abdullahi
Samaila Abdullahi Prije 2 dana
I am forever grateful to Dr IGUDIA on HRpost who cured me from herpes with his herbal medication, you are so real and trusted.
RD2564
RD2564 Prije 3 dana
Beautiful video. Biosciences are a rich hunting ground for new videos.
David Blank
David Blank Prije 3 dana
So...when do they turn into monkeys??? Can monkeys evolve into bacteria???
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 3 dana
"So...when do they turn into monkeys" Based on evolutionary science, never. If you think evolution suggests otherwise, you don't understand evolution.
DeadEndFrog
DeadEndFrog Prije 3 dana
well don't judge the Qu when they do this to us :^)
lalit pal
lalit pal Prije 3 dana
I see you evolving from young youtuber :D
wildstar2424242424
wildstar2424242424 Prije 3 dana
A million bacterial monkeys typing on a million bacterial type-writers.... One of them finally wrote the opening to hamlet
Mike Tacos
Mike Tacos Prije 3 dana
13:48 A couple more generations and they’ll be growing eyes and noses.
Mike Tacos
Mike Tacos Prije 3 dana
Then someone breaks the glass.
Chris Koll
Chris Koll Prije 4 dana
I'll bet you I can make a dog "evolve" so that it will CRAVE something that canines would NEVER consume if left to their own tastes(sp?)...
mwuaha
mwuaha Prije 4 dana
what?
Truther
Truther Prije 4 dana
Are tests like this being done on viruses?
FuriousGeezer
FuriousGeezer Prije 4 dana
So what you are saying is, after 75,000 generations, it's just better bacteria, but in the same amount of generations we went from monkey to man? Why didn't it macro evolve?
FuriousGeezer
FuriousGeezer Prije 3 dana
@Crispr CAS9 fair enough! I am still seeing no evidence of macro evolution, but that timeline sure makes it look like more of a possibility. My timeline was clearly off
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 3 dana
@FuriousGeezer "it's a long time from bacteria to monkey" Monkeys are not descended from bacteria. "We get what a billion or so years?" 3.5 billion from first life to complex life, another 100 million to get on land, another 150 million for mammals, another 100 million for primates, another 50 for humans. Approximately.
FuriousGeezer
FuriousGeezer Prije 4 dana
@Crispr CAS9 Both are human though, yes. I poorly worded it.
FuriousGeezer
FuriousGeezer Prije 4 dana
@Crispr CAS9 it's a long time from bacteria to monkey and again to man. Not sure there is time for that🤷🏼‍♂️. We get what a billion or so years?
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 4 dana
In the same number of generations, our ancestors went from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Both of those are humans.
Neiley
Neiley Prije 4 dana
so how long til one of the containers crawls off? :P
sf
sf Prije 4 dana
using the same needle for different flask samples???!!
Bangs Cutter
Bangs Cutter Prije 5 dana
The human scale equivalent of this would be alien abduction encounters, where aliens continuously sample humans as they observe our evolution.
Brad Shymon
Brad Shymon Prije 5 dana
Shouldn't forget all the generations of students who evolved the professor's knowledge and status! 🧐
realitycheck2001
realitycheck2001 Prije 5 dana
Wait. She wasn’t wearing gloves. Am I missing something?
Gary CLark
Gary CLark Prije 5 dana
Ok thats stretch of a comparison. The mutations of a one cell bacterium are quite different than the mutations that would have to occur for an ape like creature to transform into what man is today. I don't care how many million years you tack on to it.
Gary CLark
Gary CLark Prije 6 sati
@Crispr CAS9 I guess for me it boils down to mutations. Do mutations cause evolution. Is there any other mechanism that brings about evolution. We have proof of inherent changes among species that help them to become more suitable in their environment, but we have zero accounts that I am aware of on one species evolving into another. What evidence do we have that mutations for example created an eye or a wing? Changed a flipper to an arm. It is one thing for a bacteria or a virus to change the way it defends itself. Its quite another for a complex organism to evolve into an even more complex organism. Most mutations are neutral, bad ones are rooted out and, good mutations rarely make it to the next generation. I believe that mutations can and do add value and variety to individual species, but I see no evidence of mutations evolving from one species to another. I guess that's my point, it all seems mute if there is no smoking gun, they have been searching for it for 150 years, yet no evidence. What bugs me the most is how religious scientists have become on the subject of evolution. They accuse creationists of only relying on faith yet much if what they proport to believe as true has about as much evidence. I don't understand the us against them mentally that has cropped up in science lately,(or has it always been the case) the same with climate change, this pandemic. It feels like science is being exploited for political gain. It's losing it purity.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije dan
​@Gary CLark "Many species remain virtually unchanged for millions of years, then suddenly disappear to be replaced by a quite different, but related, form." Let's say that was completely true for every group. How would it be relevant to anything in my prior comments, specifically? Does it provide a metric for 'flourishing'? Does is it address the greater fitness of chimpanzees in their environment? The nature of scientific theories and laws? No to all. Nor does it present a mechanism for 'crafting' organisms. Does it support any of your later statements that do address some of these? No again. So why bring it up? Most groups don't fit that pattern, by the way. "Moreover, most major groups of animals appear abruptly in the fossil record" First, same initial commentary as above. Anyway: If you mean in the Cambrian, then that is partially true, although we are starting to find some organisms from the Ediacaran. That's still enough to show the evolution of all vertebrates, for instance. " fully formed" We never expect to find any 'half-formed' organisms, that's not how evolution works. "and with no fossils yet discovered that form a transition from their parent group." This isn't a problem for human evolution. The fossil record is fairly extensive. "This pattern is contrary to what would be expected from Darwinian evolution." Darwinian evolution only makes predictions on what should be found in the fossil record in the sense of predicting the chronological order of specimens that might be found, not what should be found in the actual rocks. For instance, if an initial radiation occurs rapidly in a small population, especially for small and soft bodied animals, it is unlikely that we would find many fossils at all. But if we DID find some, then they should occur in a particular pattern. Failure to find the Ediacaran soft-bodied ancestors of vertebrates, for instance, is neither consistent with nor contrary to evolution. Finding a rabbit mixed in with the Ediacaran would definitely be contrary to evolution. "Genetics has punched more holes in it lately." Genetics provided a stronger support for evolution than any single field has ever provided to any single theory in the history of science. "and not to rely on random chance mutations to explain" Mutation is a known process that can do what needs to be explained. That certainly doesn't mean it is impossible for some other process to be involved, but until it is presented, mutation will continue to be the best explanation currently available. "I am however enjoying this conversation." I've talked to a few people under this video, you've been the best so far.
Gary CLark
Gary CLark Prije 2 dana
@Crispr CAS9 my reasoning for specific placements of species is as follows: Many species remain virtually unchanged for millions of years, then suddenly disappear to be replaced by a quite different, but related, form. Moreover, most major groups of animals appear abruptly in the fossil record, fully formed, and with no fossils yet discovered that form a transition from their parent group. This pattern is contrary to what would be expected from Darwinian evolution. Your partially right about laws and theories. I don't think one is better than the other, theories are more complex and less quantifiable. Going into the whys and hows. scientific law predicts the results of certain initial conditions. I think that evolution is as well established in proof and data as it should be considering it's been around for about 150 years. Genetics has punched more holes in it lately. I think we need more information from all kinds of sources, and not to rely on random chance mutations to explain the propagation of species on the whole planet without stepwise fossil records. I am however enjoying this conversation. It's been helpful to me to continue to formulate my ideas about how things came to be, so thank you.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 3 dana
@Gary CLark "I would consider flurishing of species is a metric of evolution" And what do you mean by flourishing? Think about it this way: At the end of this, we need to plug something into an equation. What is the *number*? ""survival of the fittest" I would also consider a metric of evolution." Great. Fitness here means differential reproductive success, which can be mathematically modeled. Chimpanzees have massively greater fitness in their environment than humans. Humans have higher fitness in ours. Both are extremely fit in their own environments. " I am using opinion because all these Ideas are theory" Theory isn't opinion, it is the highest level of science backed by monumental amounts of evidence. "and that many organisms are crafted in such a way as to place the greatest amount of organisms in a space where all can thrive" And what is the known mechanism to accomplish that? "we are quite a long way off from a law of evolution" There are many laws in evolution. A law in science is just a mathematical correlation. Laws are lower than theory, since theories contain many laws.
Gary CLark
Gary CLark Prije 3 dana
@Crispr CAS9 I would consider flurishing of species is a metric of evolution. , "survival of the fittest" I would also consider a metric of evolution. if these aren't metrics of evolution like the ability of the bacteria to evole to overcome the antibiotics and contitue to propogate, then what are we even talking about. I am using opinion because all these Ideas are theory, we have fossil records of what we think might have happened, we have similar genetic and physical structures that would indicated a similar ancestor, but let say for example that the reason for similar structures is that it this structure is best suited for it's environment and that many organisms are crafted in such a way as to place the greatest amount of organisms in a space where all can thrive. your talking like there are 1 set of facts that guide all of evolution and if it doesn't fit into some arbitrarily defined catagory than it isn't true, I'm saying we are quite a long way off from a law of evolution if there ever can be one. The problem is we don't know what we don't know.
Chris M
Chris M Prije 5 dana
Still waiting. When did bacteria have gain in function/information and become a dog? Nowhere in the world does that occur. Besides all fossils having soft cell tissues in them is clear and abundant evidence evolution does not occur. There are not enough trillions and quadrillions of years for "mutations" required to have gained in function as soft cell tissues have how long a life? Your experiment does nothing but proves the existence of a "pre-programmed will to survive" or immunity as your body posses. Mankind did not evolve from apes or will they evolve into something other than humans. Transitional fossils? Where?
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 5 dana
@Chris M "That is the events evolution proposes." No, it isn't.
Chris M
Chris M Prije 5 dana
@Crispr CAS9 That is the events evolution proposes.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 5 dana
"When did bacteria [...] become a dog?" If bacteria became dogs, that would disprove evolution. You understand that, right?
Vinícius M
Vinícius M Prije 5 dana
E.Colocaust :(
Chris Carriere
Chris Carriere Prije 5 dana
Isn't it possible to try and make bacteria evolve into eating stuff we treat as garbage ? Like idk all the "bad" gases etc. Could solve a lot of problems
Stephanie Hyatt
Stephanie Hyatt Prije 5 dana
I hate to mention this, but unless you are composting your paper towels, use re-usable microfiber cloths that you can throw in the washer. I use them occasionally, but rarely for cleaning.
Ismael Abufon
Ismael Abufon Prije 5 dana
12:31 ... I 100% read Gattaca haha
Ismael Abufon
Ismael Abufon Prije 5 dana
The lucky 1% gets to reproduce..... like the super rich haha
Peter Smoyer
Peter Smoyer Prije 6 dana
Space itself is the thing that is evolving. All the matter, energy and radiation that exists in the universe at one time fit into something the size of a soccer ball or perhaps a football stadium. It all came from space. It is all here to benefit space. Space would not be as expansive as it is without the matter and energy it created in less than one second.
Antisocial Atheist
Antisocial Atheist Prije 6 dana
I could sit down and talk with that guy for days lol. Very interesting and informative. If I could meet him I'd have to thank him for his work
Plum Amazing
Plum Amazing Prije 6 dana
The best example of this kind of research is a really old story by the author of 'Game of Thrones' George R.R Martin. It's one of his best. It's a short story called 'Sandkings'. There is the book on youtube. Also the outerlimits video also on youtube. Sorry I can't put up links you'll have to search youtube. Very scary one to read. I suspect you will like it. muhahaha
Falsimer
Falsimer Prije 6 dana
When the music kicked in I got a wave of nostalgia. I saw your source, but what it reminded me of was the Majora's Mask Milk Bar Theme. The most simultaneously upbeat and sorrowful music I can think of right now. Only the first 5 or so notes of your music matched the Theme, but it was enough to spark my memory.
Benjamin Márkus
Benjamin Márkus Prije 6 dana
that transfer process was suprisingly lax! :o i would’ve thought you’d want to do this under suction cabinet with purified atmosphere and such.
sokin jon
sokin jon Prije 6 dana
“33 years ago, even on weekends ever since ..” Bacteria are annoyingly hard workers.
mbbs2008
mbbs2008 Prije 6 dana
Perhaps this is adaptability? Quiet possible that bacteria have different (higher) adaptability potential then higher animals?. The bacteria still remained "bacteria" at the end, even after 30 years relentless "experimentation", and did no really "evolve" into a new species? Am I missing something?
mike powers
mike powers Prije 6 dana
This is a great experiment in micro evolution and also acts as an experiment in macro evolution as well, if macro evolution were possible there would be signs after 70k generations but, that is not the case. No matter how resilient or mutated these samples are they are still E. coli bacteria and not E. coli/??? Or something completely different.
sokin jon
sokin jon Prije 6 dana
stove, etc. It's WAY too wasteful to use paper towels! SHAME on you, for promoting such wastefulness!!
jonnyjazzz
jonnyjazzz Prije 6 dana
So this is what Chase is doing these days. Decided he liked the red-head look, too.
Emmanuel N
Emmanuel N Prije 6 dana
Evolution really isn't true devolution or decay is much more realistic
Tom James
Tom James Prije 6 dana
Where are the damn gloves?
Máté Ócsai
Máté Ócsai Prije 6 dana
This video was amazing. I was hooked from the beginning.
Roberto Serrini • The Travelclast
Roberto Serrini • The Travelclast Prije 6 dana
bounty blew my mind
Ad Lakerveld
Ad Lakerveld Prije 6 dana
It seems dangerous to me learning bacteria to survive antibiotics
X17
X17 Prije 6 dana
This is a perfect plot for a disaster movie
X17
X17 Prije 6 dana
why 42 though?
betaneptune
betaneptune Prije 7 dana
This is the great experiment Richard Dawkins describes in his book _The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution_!
Ezgi Umut
Ezgi Umut Prije 7 dana
As far as I understand the environment in this experiment is strictly controlled with constant and optimal temperature and nutritional content. There are no other species present. E.coli to grow faster in such an environment is most likely explained by the fact that these bacteria evolve to spend less energy and time to adapt to different temperatures, nutritional shortages (ex. storing carbohydrates), and competing with other species, allowing them to concentrate all metabolic activity on growth and reproduction. Thus, the "constant improvement" proposed by the researcher is questionable. This is probably not an improvement, it is only an action of increasing the activity of only one vital metabolic function (growth by using glucose) at the expense of others (adaptation to temperature, nutritional shortage, competition, etc.).
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 5 dana
@Ezgi Umut "My comment is not a claim" Yes it is. You claimed that something was the most likely explanation, you must support this. You've also made a collection of claims in your new comment, and provided support for none of them. You're just making stuff up, no one cares.
Ezgi Umut
Ezgi Umut Prije 5 dana
@Crispr CAS9 My comment is not a claim, rather a necessary discussion before accepting that this experiment provides evidence to "continuous improvement" in a stable environment. I consider that it should be called continuous adaptation to the experiment's growth medium. The first generation E.coli of this experiment comes from the real world where it spent significant energy to preserve membrane potential to the changing electrolyte concentrations of its habitat, to adapt to temperature changes and nutritional content as well as producing multiple enzymes to produce energy from many non-glucose substrates. The hospitable and stable environment provided in this experiment is expected to result in selective atrophy of the aforementioned metabolic features of the bacterium that it gained to survive harsh living conditions; allowing more energy to be spent on growth and reproduction rather than metabolic defensive buffers, competition, etc. The researcher has to disprove this interpretation before concluding that continuous improvement takes place even in stable conditions. These bacteria are still adapting to this new friendly habitat (no fluctuations in sodium, phosphate, potassium, magnesium, citrate, ammonium concentrations, temperature, nutrition ) even if it has been going on for 30 years (which is not a long time) especially considering that it is markedly different from what the bacteria have evolved in millions of years. The atrophy of previously essential functions with environmental change has been described in many species even in vertebrates in Galapagos.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 6 dana
@Ezgi Umut " It is more likely that the outcome (growth rate) is better not because of progress, but rather from the atrophy of other metabolic functions that are necessary for life in the real world" This is your claim, present your evidence to support it.
Ezgi Umut
Ezgi Umut Prije 6 dana
@Crispr CAS9 the ability to grow without glucose (ex. metabolizing citrate) is a different discussion that takes place during the video. However, the main topic of interest that the researcher emphasizes at the conclusion is the constant improvement of the growth rate which concerns the bacteria incubated at the standard DM25 liquid medium (10% glucose). It is more likely that the outcome (growth rate) is better not because of progress, but rather from the atrophy of other metabolic functions that are necessary for life in the real world, that have become obsolete in this experiment method.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 7 dana
"it is only an action of increasing the activity of only one vital metabolic function (growth by using glucose)" The interesting finding is that are able to grow in the complete absence of glucose. Are you sure you watched the video?
hoiy vinosa
hoiy vinosa Prije 7 dana
“33 years ago, even on weekends ever since ..” Bacteria are annoyingly hard workers.
Blue Five
Blue Five Prije 7 dana
I'm put in mind of 'The Outer Limits' episode 'Wolf 359'.
Soapy's Thoughts
Soapy's Thoughts Prije 7 dana
This reminds me of Primer
Yout Funny
Yout Funny Prije 7 dana
Evolution is Adaptation Adaptability
hoiy vinosa
hoiy vinosa Prije 7 dana
i just love the hippie labcoat at 11.50 :-) ....sadly not gonna happen in my lab :-(
Mary Ann Bittle
Mary Ann Bittle Prije 8 dana
Paper towels? Um, NO. Dish cloths, hand towels, sponges, all can be - get this - *WASHED* to sanitize them. No need, at ALL, to waste trees in order to wipe down the counter, stove, etc. It's WAY too wasteful to use paper towels! _SHAME on you,_ for promoting such wastefulness!!
Robe005
Robe005 Prije 8 dana
Damn, the ThermoFisher ad was awesome. Don't know what it was but the music and video were very satisfying:)
Fred Bach
Fred Bach Prije 8 dana
No we're not viewing evolution as it happens. You are describing 'minor evolution' which is an adaptation to environment. It's still the same bug. It hasn't turned into another kind of bacteria. And the corn is still corn. Major evolution would result in a different bacterium or a different plant. I wish you evolutionists would stop lying to us. Stop using the smoke screen of minor evolution to prove that major evolution is a fact.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 7 dana
​@Fred Bach "That was a library addition using Crisper " I don't know which experiment you're talking about, but it isn't any of the ones featured in this video. "Let me know when it turns into something that is not an E-coli." 'E coli' is a species designation, and species designations are human labels for human abstractions of populations. A sub population of E coli is no longer E coli when humans decide it, and by the ecotype conception of species delimitation the Ara-3 strain is already a new species. "Does the citrate ability come via the Rogues' Gallery or from elsewhere in the genome?" The citrate ability comes from a novel mutation, as confirmed by genomic sequencing of the ancestral and descendant strains. " If the latter, what will happen if you took the citrate away for 75000 generations? Might it lose its ability to handle citrate? " Sounds like you just suggested it can't be evolution if *more* evolution happens afterwards. I hope that isn't what you intended, since that would be silly.
Fred Bach
Fred Bach Prije 7 dana
@Crispr CAS9 the bugs were given a Rogues gallery of what compounds to be immune to. For instance the square carbon ring in penicillin family drugs. That was a library addition using Crisper.... rather than a genetic mutation. Your username comes from that process. It's still an E-coli with a bigger library and a genetic variation. This ability is given to most lifeforms. Let me know when it turns into something that is not an E-coli. Does the citrate ability come via the Rogues' Gallery or from elsewhere in the genome? If the latter, what will happen if you took the citrate away for 75000 generations? Might it lose its ability to handle citrate? This reminds me of the moths in England that turned from a light shade to a dark shade and back to light again when the air pollution was cleaned up. I know you will attribute that to preditors. You actually need to do the other half of the experiment and put the new bug in an old environment for 75000 generations and see what it gains and loses.
Null Pointer
Null Pointer Prije 7 dana
lots of small changes eventually make large changes...
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 8 dana
"No we're not viewing evolution as it happens." Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "It's still the same bug." It isn't the same, the descendant can use citrate as a sole carbon source, which the ancestor could not. They have identified the mutations responsible, which were not present in the ancestor. It is demonstrably different. "It hasn't turned into another kind of bacteria. " 'Kind' is a nonsense word without any scientific validity. "Major evolution would result in a different bacterium" Then mission accomplished, as explained above. "or a different plant." If any of the descendants of bacteria were plants, that would disprove evolution. Asking as evidence for a thing something that would actually disprove that thing is a fairly clear indication you don't understand the subject in the first place.
Oogie Padoogie
Oogie Padoogie Prije 8 dana
And in 30 more years (equivalent to 3 million years from the start), still nothing cool happened. Yawn.
Fred Leonard
Fred Leonard Prije 8 dana
Time for flask beer pong?
patricio patricio
patricio patricio Prije 8 dana
when you touch the elbow for said hi don't keep social distance needed for prevent covid
Adnan haider
Adnan haider Prije 8 dana
New Hollywood movie plot, Planet of the Bacteria.
Polaris Raven
Polaris Raven Prije 7 dana
So, as opposed to a Grey Goo scenario (Out of control Nano-Bot Replicators), this would be a Green Goo scenario?
random black hole
random black hole Prije 8 dana
So "life finds a way" even if it doesn't need to?
Jorjon Jorjon
Jorjon Jorjon Prije 8 dana
Imagine if we are just an experiment inside an alien race flask, and we die because otherwise the experiment would become unmanageable.
LoBoToM81
LoBoToM81 Prije 8 dana
That was interesting.
Scott Pike
Scott Pike Prije 9 dana
33 years and it’s still bacteria.
Random Dude
Random Dude Prije 8 dana
Just as evolution predicts.
avadhut patil
avadhut patil Prije 9 dana
Everyone gangsta until bacteria evolve to have collective consciousness
tarkaras
tarkaras Prije 9 dana
i just love the hippie labcoat at 11.50 :-) ....sadly not gonna happen in my lab :-(
miko foin
miko foin Prije 8 dana
millennia of “hominid” evolution? So how long did it take to get to “hominid” again? Would you mind taking me through that process, even theoretically, step by step? I’m very
Mohammad Hasanain
Mohammad Hasanain Prije 9 dana
Tell me when the bacteria becomes a fish🤫
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 6 dana
@Mohammad Hasanain "ok so you flipped to racism" Excuse me? That's a substantial accusation. Either support it or retract it. " I am a native speaker" Then the educational system has failed you. "and you judge me by my name" I judged you by your obvious inability to communicate in English. I had given you the benefit of the doubt that you were able to at least communicate in some other language. If you claim you're just incoherent generally, I'll take your word for it. When you've learned how words work and what a reasonable number of them mean, feel free to revisit this conversation and try again.
Mohammad Hasanain
Mohammad Hasanain Prije 6 dana
@Crispr CAS9 ok so you flipped to racism what would you do if I was in your county just god knows. All the things you talked about are things I can feel their influence but I can't feel the influence of the precious evolution. write what ever you want now, I will not answer you because I am a native speaker and you judge me by my name "science guy"
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 7 dana
@Mohammad Hasanain "it's clear that you don't understand what am I saying" Given the fact that I am a native speaker of the language we're using, and I'm guessing you are not, I'd say that it is *much* more likely the problem is that *you* don't understand what I am saying. "so just answer this question, when was there any proof and I mean proof on evolution" Same time as there was proof of gravity: Never. There is no proof in science. If you deny evolution because there is no 'proof' then you must also deny gravity, electricity, the existence of microbes, and the reality of your own mind. Because you can't 'prove' any of them.
Mohammad Hasanain
Mohammad Hasanain Prije 7 dana
@Crispr CAS9 it's clear that you don't understand what am I saying or don't want to so just answer this question, when was there any proof and I mean proof on evolution and something transforming to something else like an ape or fish caroling out of the see 🤷🏽‍♂️
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 7 dana
@Mohammad Hasanain "so science doesn't work on proof is that correct?" Yes. "If it is you're talking about a new science you invented" No. "and if you said "observed " an observation is enough proof for such a thing" An observation isn't proof. It is a data point that increases confidence. "where was it observed can you tell me?" PMC3277146 & PMC4380822, and others. "What I meant when I talked about the experiment was that it didn't happen in this experiment while it was this long, when can it happen?" Here's your logic, spot the error: "I just flipped a coin 5 times and didn't roll a six, therefore rolling a six with a fair die is impossible!" "So if I told you that I'm confident the moon is made of cheese" I'd be curious as to what statistical analysis you based that on, but strongly suspect you just didn't understand what I mean by 'confidence'. I'm using a statistical definition, not a common one.
Psychentist
Psychentist Prije 9 dana
Love the turbulent flow Tshirt. LOL. This little feud is hilarious and I'm here for it.
Larry Panozzo
Larry Panozzo Prije 9 dana
Generation 69,000: E. Coli have spelled out the words, “Let us out.”
kolim jone
kolim jone Prije 9 dana
I would love to sit in the lectures of this professor. It is so pleasant to hear him explain!
isaiah
isaiah Prije 9 dana
Lol, evolution isn’t real. There settled
Null Pointer
Null Pointer Prije 7 dana
lol, nobody of any relevance cares about your opinion.
avitarmageddon
avitarmageddon Prije 9 dana
Let's hope those bacterium are not harmful to life around them when they escape. I'm not qualified to know whether they represent a danger or not but I do know that no containment protocols are 100% guaranteed, never can be.
Heinrich Himla
Heinrich Himla Prije 7 dana
i feel as if they wont survive well in the wild considering they're evolving in extremely favourable conditions for them
Texas Ray
Texas Ray Prije 9 dana
What kind of idiots want to breed bacteria that are immune to antibiotics?
Eren JAEGER
Eren JAEGER Prije 9 dana
I wonder if it’s possible for a mutation to arise where it produces an antibiotic that it is immune to but the other members of the population aren’t. It would probably require a long chain of silent mutations to occur in a very specific way and the resistance ability would have to evolve shortly before the antibiotic ability otherwise it may be too prevalent in the population
Classic Riki
Classic Riki Prije 9 dana
This is extremely interesting, brilliant video all around. Something very disturbing about watching these bacteria evolve rapidly and seeing the rate explained compared to earth 🌍 while having seen them wearing masks due to Covid
Micro Scale
Micro Scale Prije 10 dana
Can anyone please explain why he used fluorescent powder and uv torch? Please please please🙏🙏🙏🙏🙄
Dylan Birrer
Dylan Birrer Prije 10 dana
absolute champ, this video is exactly what I need for the biology assessment I'm doing, there's so much useful information and you made me think about what I'm writing in a different light as well.
Strange Velocity
Strange Velocity Prije 10 dana
0:59 Before I watch this video again.. Where can I get that t shirt? :O
pNsB
pNsB Prije 10 dana
People saying “but they’re still bacteria” really have no clue how evolution works XD
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 4 dana
@Hassan Selim "where no longer bacteria (eg: they became multicellular?)" Becoming multicellular wouldn't make them no longer bacteria. In fact, there *are* multicellular bacteria. Bacteria is a clade, and you can't escape your ancestry. Your descendants must always be in the same clades you are in, under evolutionary theory.
Hassan Selim
Hassan Selim Prije 5 dana
@Crispr CAS9 thank you for your great explanations, I just have a question about a statement you made. You said that if by the end of the experiment the resulting creatures where no longer bacteria (eg: they became multicellular?) then it would disprove evolution. Why is that?
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 9 dana
@Stay Tune Kaison "no you cannot have one without the only" Organisms exist with one and not the other, so you are demonstrably wrong.
Stay Tune Kaison
Stay Tune Kaison Prije 9 dana
@Crispr CAS9 no you cannot have one without the only if you shoot someone an the heart stops the brain continues functioning for a while before it stops so it shows if u do have one without the other it won’t last very long And example would be a lizard an it’s take if you cut a lizards take it will still be moving for a little bit it will stop so it cannot work wit a much more complicated things such as the brain or the heart
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 9 dana
@Stay Tune Kaison "Darwin and his discovery on the birds beaks was that evolution or adaptation" If we interpret the differences as adaptive, then it was adaptation. Regardless, it was absolutely evolution, since we've documented the changes in their genomes for the different populations. "and let’s move to Darwinian evolution" You want to 'move on' to something 150 years out of date? "so before humans existed the heart had to evolve and grow so did the brain" Apes have hearts. So do mammals. So do amniotes. So do vertebrates. So do chordates. But by the time you are back to basal chordates, you are talking about a 'heart' that is a single enlarged, centralized, and slightly more heavily muscled ventricle that is fully homologous with the distributed vesicles of other deuterostomes. Which are, in turn, homologous with the types of vesicles found in protostomes. Which is basically just a slightly increased musculature around a vessel to improve lymph circulation, which isn't even needed for the smallest organisms. And that is to say it is, in comparison to a human heart, *much* less than half a heart. And yet it worked just fine for those organisms in their environment. So you can actually trace the development of hearts all the way back to a point where they weren't even needed. You can do the same for brains. " so which came first cause you can’t have one without the other? " You absolutely can have one without the other. "When the first bacteria appeared it had to eat but the senses weren’t a thing so how did it know where to eat or eyes weren’t thing so how did it find it’s food again with no senses" The same way bacteria find food now, since they don't have eyes now either.
David Ghetto
David Ghetto Prije 10 dana
No gloves lol
gregormann7
gregormann7 Prije 10 dana
The brainwashing on this subject is surpassed by no other! Absolutely astonishing. So 75,000 generations of bacteria becoming. . . um, bacteria. . . is the equivalent of 1500 millennia of “hominid” evolution? So how long did it take to get to “hominid” again? Would you mind taking me through that process, even theoretically, step by step? I’m very interested to know just how the suite of organs that fill the torso evolved into a coordinated interacting interdependent group of unique components comprising complex animal life. Like bacteria. . .becoming bacteria. And please, no assumed “populations” for a starting point.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Prije 10 dana
"And please, no assumed “populations” for a starting point." Explain evolution, but don't talk about evolution? Sounds like you don't know what the subject is in the first place.
Adriana Gabriela
Adriana Gabriela Prije 10 dana
Well, this looks like a disaster waiting to happen (one day)
Abhin Aravind
Abhin Aravind Prije 10 dana
Yet people say Darwin is wrong and God is real 😂😂
srak 123
srak 123 Prije 9 dana
Darwin doesn't have to be false for g-d to exist
Dan K
Dan K Prije 10 dana
So then one of these bacteria gets loose and infects the human population and low and behold there is no antibiotic that can save us. Did we not learn anything from the covid lab leak in wuhan???
Shipwright
Shipwright Prije 11 dana
Congrats! Sounds like a billion dollar experiment to prove how different breeds of dogs are possible. 😆
Rahul Raj
Rahul Raj Prije 11 dana
Religion has left the chat
Reyhan Alhafizal
Reyhan Alhafizal Prije 11 dana
I thought this video was about artificial neural network. Dammit.
LDPC
LDPC Prije 11 dana
Read a great book about this (and other experiments like it) on a flight the other day, Improbable Destinies by Jonathan Losos. In case anyone wants to go even more in depth!
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